History of the Establishment of a Palestinian State

General / 13 October 2019

The Palestinian state which declared its independence on 15 November 1988 has an interesting story in it. The first to declare the country's independence was the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) in Algiers which at that time acted as a government-in-exile, as a political group claimed to be legitimate government but were unable to use their power and instead lived in other countries. The areas claimed as part of the Palestinian state are the West Bank and Gaza Strip, while Jerusalem is determined as the capital. Even so, since 1967 almost all of the areas claimed by Palestine are now occupied by Israeli soldiers as a result of the Six Days war that occurred on June 5 to 10 of that year.

History of Palestine Before the Modern Era
The history of the establishment of a Palestinian state dates back to the Canaanite period. This is confirmed by a fossil of humans more than 1.5 million years ago in the Pleistocene era. The discovery of the fossil was found at Ubeidiya, which is 3 km south of the Sea of Galilee. This fossil is thought to be the first evidence of early migration from Homo erectus out of Africa. In 1925 in a cave called Goa Zuttiyeh also found the remains of living things which were later given the name "Palestinian Man". In the south of Nazareth, at a paleoanthropological site, 11 Homo sapien skulls were found that had been fossilized on a rock. The fossil, which after being examined in modern human anatomy, turned out to be around 90,000 to 100,000 years old, and many of the remaining bones were colored using the red ocher that is commonly used in the burial process.

After the Canaanite period passed and passed through two phases of the bronze period, the history of the establishment of the Palestinian state continued with the period of the New Egyptian Kingdom around 1550 to 1400 BC where the cities of Canaan were now part of the kingdom of New Egypt which made a massive expansion into the area The Levants under Ahmose I and Thutmose I. All political, commercial and military affairs in the latter part of the era were recorded by several ambassadors and Canaanian proxy leaders for Egypt in 379 using tablets known as the Amarna Letters. During the first reign of the Seti I pharaoh, he carried out a mission to re-coordinate Canaan which is now in Egyptian rule to the Shean Belt area and installed several puppet governments to govern the area. In 1178 BC, Ramesses III raised the flag of war against the Sea People, which was named the Djahy War (Canaan), where this war was the beginning of the loss of power of the New Kingdom of Egypt at the Levant, and at the same time the collapse of the Bronze era.

The history of the establishment of a Palestinian state continues back to the Hellenic era with its subjugation in 330 BC by Alexander the Great after previously surviving through the independent period of Israelite, Philistine and Canaanite, the period under the rule of the Neo-Syrian and Neo-Babylonian kingdoms, and the Persian empire (Achaemenid). In 323 to 301 BC, Palestinian land was repeatedly ruled by different people due to the Diadochi war. There are also leaders written in the history of the establishment of a Palestinian state at that time including Laomedon, Ptolemy I Soter, and Antigonus I Monophthalmus. In 321 BC, Ptolemy I Soter killed the son of Antigonus I in the Gaza War, Demetrius I. The large number of wars that occurred in this era caused the landscape to change in extreme times with a very rapid transfer of power. Another thing that has happened is that many fortified cities have been built with the reason to dispel enemy forces.

Palestinian State in the Modern Era
The era of the Roman kingdom which recorded another part in the history of the establishment of a Palestinian state lasted for 3 periods namely Roman Iudea in 63 BC which was then continued by the Roman Syrian Roman period in 132 BC, and ended around the 630s due to the defeat of Roman troops in several major wars. The defeat of the Roman army also opened the gate for the entry of the Muslim Caliphate, led by Rashidun and Umayyad until 968 before the Fatimid Caliphate attacked. The Fatimid Caliphate was only able to survive until 1054 and began to collapse due to attacks from the crusaders during the Crusades.

The history of the establishment of a modern Palestinian state began in 1516 when Ottoman Turks occupied Palestine and Istanbul was appointed as its local government. Palestinian rule was threatened when Napoleon began the war in March 7 to July 1799. This attack failed and ended when Napoleon was killed by his younger brother who collaborated with the Ottomans. On May 10, 1832, the Ottoman Syrian territory was occupied by Egyptian expansionists under the leadership of Muhammad Ali in the Egyptian-Ottoman war in 1831, however, the Ottomans fought back and were only defeated when they joined the German Empire in World War I.

Starting from around the 2000s, Palestinians whose territory began to be claimed by Israel began to rebel and their first attack was known as Al-Aqsa Intifada. In 2002, a resolution to end the Israeli-Palestinian conflict was proposed by the United States, the European Union, Russia and the United Nations. In 2004 also George W. Bush requested that a Palestinian state could coexist with Israel. In 2005, Palestinian militia forces began firing Qassam rockets at Israel. This ongoing war between Palestine and Israel has become a dark part in the history of the establishment of a Palestinian state.

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