History of Kediri Kingdom

General / 09 October 2019

Kediri Kingdom which is also called Panjalu Kingdom is a kingdom with Hindu-Buddhist style. The kingdom that was founded in 1042 was part of a larger kingdom, the Kingdom of Ancient Mataram, and the center of the kingdom was located on the banks of the Brantas river which was a major shipping lane at that time. The history of Kediri Kingdom is widely known because of the revolt by Ken Arok.



History of the Establishment of the Kingdom of Kediri
In 1019, Airlangga succeeded in becoming king of Medang Kamulan. While in office, Airlangga succeeded in restoring Medang Kamulan's authority and eventually moved his government center to Kahuripan. In 1041, Airlangga ordered the kingdom to be divided into two parts. The division was carried out by Mpu Bharada, the famous Brahmin. The two divided kingdoms were then known as Jenggala (Kahuripan) and Panjalu (Kediri) and separated by Mount Kawi and the Brantas River. This incident is then narrated in the Mahasukbya inscription, the Arang Candidate fiber, and the Negarakertagama book. Although Airlangga's initial goal of splitting the kingdom into two was so that there was no power struggle, in practice the two sons of Airlangga continued to compete even after they were each given their own kingdom.


The development of the Kediri kingdom with Daha as its capital was very rapid, while the kingdom of Jenggala was increasingly left behind. This incident is suspected because Jenggala was conquered by Kediri and reunited into one Kingdom, but there is also a possibility that Jenggala did not leave the inscription at all.

Development and collapse of the kingdom of Kediri
Not many people know about the early history of the Kediri kingdom, even the inscription of Turun Hyang II, published in 1044 by the Kingdom of Janggala, only wrote about the civil war that occurred after Airlangga divided Kahuripan into two and he no longer ruled. The history of Kediri is only beginning to be known with the emergence of Sirah Keting's inscription on the name of Sri Jayawarsa in 1104. However, for the name of the King before Sri Jayawarsa, only one is known, namely Sri Samarawijaya while for the order of the king after Sri Jayawarsa it can be clearly known through the findings of the inscription the other.

The first Raja Kediri was named Mapanji Garasakan and he did not rule for so long, so that there was hardly enough information about him. He was later succeeded by Raja Mapanji Alanjung in 1052 and again replaced by Sri Maharaja Samarotsaha. Because of the ongoing battle between Jenggala and Panjalu, news of the two kingdoms disappeared for 60 years, until finally the name of King Bameswara appeared in 1116, which ruled until 1135. At that time, the center of government was no longer in Daha but had been moved to Kediri and since then Panjalu better known by the name of the Kingdom of Kediri.

The fall of the Kingdom of Jenggala is written in the Ngantang inscription in 1135. This event took place when Sri Jayabhaya ruled, and made a famous motto, Panjalu Jayati, which means Panjalu won. During his reign Kediri also experienced its golden period in which its territory expanded to the entire island of Java and several other islands in the archipelago. This is also confirmed by the Chinese chronicle entitled Ling Wai Tai in 1178 written by Chou Ku-fei. The Chinese chronicle tells us that Java was the richest country after China and Arabia, even surpassing Sumatra. Raja Jayabhaya is also known as a necromancer. All his predictions he collected became a book called the Jongko Joyoboyo Book in which there were a number of things such as the fair queen who would come to rule Indonesia.

After Jayabhaya's reign ended in 1159, Raja Sarweswara ascended the throne and began his reign for 10 years. Unfortunately, not much information is written about Raja Sarweswara because of the limited number of relics found. One of the information held about Raja Sarweswara was that he used a royal badge in the form of Ganesha.

According to the Wind inscription which tells the story in 1171, Sri Aryeswara came forward to replace Sarweswara. No one knows for sure when Aryeswara took the throne due to the lack of historical information about the kingdom of Kediri about Aryeswara, all that is known is that the symbol of Kediri at that time remained in the form of Ganesha. Sri Ganda replaced Aryeswara as king in 1181 which is known from the Jaring inscription. The inscription tells about the use of animal names for titles.

In 1182, Kameswara came forward to replace Sri Gandra. Before the advent of Kameswara, there was no clear news about who became Raja Kediri. During this time, MPU Darmaja made a book containing worship to the king, which was named the Book Kakawin Smaradahana. The Lubdaka book which tells the story of a hunter who entered heaven and Wretasancaya which contains an ancient Javanese song written by Mpu Tan Alung during the reign of Kameswara.

The last king to rule in the history of the Kediri kingdom was King Kertajaya, also known as Dandang Gendis. The story of Kertajaya who opened the door to the collapse of the Kediri Kingdom is written in Negarakertagama. Once upon a time, Kertajaya had a dispute with the Brahmins who finally asked for help from Ken Arok who happened to have an ideal to make Tumapel, who was a subordinate of Kediri, independent. This war with Tumapel finally ended the kingdom of Kediri.

After becoming Singasari's subordinate because defeated Ken Arok, Jayasabha was appointed regent of Kediri in 1258 and replaced by his son, Sastrajaya in 1271. After Sastrajaya descended and was replaced by Jayakatwang, there was a rebellion against Singasari because he could not forget the defeat of Kertajaya. Kediri collapsed again after Kertanegara was killed, but the combined attack of the Mongol and Raden Wijaya forces ended the history of the kingdom of Kediri forever.


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