How To Low Budget Marriage Invitations ?

General / 14 November 2019

If usually a wedding invitation consists of a paper containing to-the-point words and verses or poetry quotations, the more here it turns out the design and contents are increasingly creative. A tweet from a citizen later viral because it contains a unique invitation. The invitation contained a sheet that was like a page in a novel book. The contents are also the same, containing stories from beginning to end containing the schedule for them to get married at the same time to invite guests.



This ‘book’ invitation is somewhat unique and is still rarely implemented. For those of you who like books, there are actually a lot of inspiration from the invitation themes based on the concepts that come into contact with this book. Let's see what we are!

1. Besides making a one-page novel for your unique invitation, you can make two pages like this

2. Paper selection can also be one that influences the mood of your invitation. If you want to get an old impression, you can choose this paper

3. You can also make an invitation that seems to consist of several books like this. The key is to choose a different color to make it look alluring

4. Older fairy tales books can also be your inspiration for your wedding invitation theme. Make it from different colors to make it look like it consists of several series

5. If you want something more modern, you can also apply this dreamy tale book. Choose a bright color and a ribbon for decoration

6. For a minimalist design, you can apply this one design. No need a lot of decoration, you just choose a few different colors

7. White color is identical with elegant impression. The combination with red makes your invitation a sweet Disney book

8. Not only have to be in the form of a book, you can also use a loan-style card design that is usually posted behind the library book

9. You can also combine the two books and borrowing cards and put it in an envelope to invite your friends

10. For a more complete result, you can make your invitation into a book that consists of several pages with the exact format of the actual book

11. If you, your spouse, or a friend are someone who is good at design, you can use these talents to make this aesthetic invitation. Don't forget to pay properly!

12. Besides in the form of a novel book, you can also make your invitations in the form of comics so that you can explore for more fun and creative results.

Various forms and contents of the book even to the borrowing card that usually is on the back can look unique to be applied in the invitation. No need for pages, you can make one or two sheets anyway. Even if you want to be made in digital form, it is fine. Interested in trying?


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History of the Establishment of a Palestinian State

General / 07 November 2019

The Palestinian state which declared its independence on 15 November 1988 has an interesting story in it. The first to declare the country's independence was the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) in Algiers which at that time acted as a government-in-exile, as a political group claimed to be legitimate government but were unable to use their power and instead lived in other countries. The areas claimed as part of the Palestinian state are the West Bank and Gaza Strip, while Jerusalem is determined as the capital. Even so, since 1967 almost all areas claimed by Palestine are now occupied by Israeli soldiers as a result of the Six Days war that occurred on June 5 to 10 of that year.



History of Palestine Before the Modern Era
The history of the establishment of a Palestinian state dates back to the Canaanite period. This is confirmed by a fossil of humans more than 1.5 million years ago in the Pleistocene era. The discovery of the fossil was found at Ubeidiya, which is 3 km south of the Sea of Galilee. This fossil is thought to be the first evidence of early migration from Homo erectus out of Africa. In 1925 in a cave called Goa Zuttiyeh also found the remains of living things which were later given the name "Palestinian Man". In the south of Nazareth, at a paleoanthropological site, 11 Homo sapien skulls were found that had been fossilized on a rock. The fossil, which after being examined in modern human anatomy, turned out to be around 90,000 to 100,000 years old, and many of the remaining bones were colored using the red ocher that is commonly used in the burial process.

After the Canaanite period passed and passed through two phases of the bronze period, the history of the establishment of the Palestinian state continued with the period of the New Egyptian Kingdom around 1550 to 1400 BC where the Canaanite cities were now part of the kingdom of New Egypt which made a massive expansion into the area The Levants under Ahmose I and Thutmose I. All political, commercial and military affairs in the latter part of this era were recorded by several ambassadors and Canaanian proxy leaders for Egypt in 379 using tablets known as the Amarna Letters. During the first reign of the Seti I pharaoh, he carried out a mission to re-coordinate Canaan which is now in Egyptian rule to the Shean Belt area and installed several puppet governments to govern the area. In 1178 BC, Ramesses III raised the flag of war against the Sea People, which was named the Djahy War (Canaan), where this war was the beginning of the loss of power of the New Kingdom of Egypt in the Levant, and at the same time the collapse of the Bronze era.

The history of the establishment of a Palestinian state continues back to the Hellenic era with its subjugation in 330 BC by Alexander the Great after previously surviving through the independent period of Israelite, Philistine and Canaanite, the period under the rule of the Neo-Syrian and Neo-Babylonian kingdoms, and the Persian empire (Achaemenid). In 323 to 301 BC, Palestinian land was repeatedly ruled by different people due to the Diadochi war. There are also leaders written in the history of the establishment of a Palestinian state at that time including Laomedon, Ptolemy I Soter, and Antigonus I Monophthalmus. In 321 BC, Ptolemy I Soter killed the son of Antigonus I in the Gaza War, Demetrius I. The large number of wars that occurred in this era caused the landscape to change in extreme times with a very rapid transfer of power. Another thing that has happened is that many fortified cities have been built with the reason to dispel enemy forces.


Palestinian State in the Modern Era
The era of the Roman kingdom which recorded another part in the history of the establishment of a Palestinian state lasted for 3 periods namely Roman Iudea in 63 BC which was then continued by the Roman Syrian Roman period in 132 BC, and ended around the 630s due to the defeat of Roman troops in several major wars. The defeat of the Roman army also opened the gate for the entry of the Muslim Caliphate, led by Rashidun and Umayyad until 968 before the Fatimid Caliphate attacked. The Fatimid Caliphate was only able to survive until 1054 and began to collapse due to attacks from the crusaders during the Crusades.

The history of the establishment of a modern Palestinian state began in 1516 when Ottoman Turks occupied Palestine and Istanbul was appointed as its local government. Palestinian rule was threatened when Napoleon began the war in March 7 to July 1799. This attack failed and ended when Napoleon was killed by his younger brother who collaborated with the Ottomans. On May 10, 1832, the Ottoman Syrian territory was occupied by Egyptian expansionists under the leadership of Muhammad Ali in the Egyptian-Ottoman war in 1831, however the Ottomans fought back and were only defeated when they joined the German Empire in World War I.

Starting from around the 2000s, the Palestinians whose territory began to be claimed by Israel began to rebel and their first attack was known as Al-Aqsa Intifada. In 2002, a resolution to end the Israeli-Palestinian conflict was proposed by the United States, the European Union, Russia and the United Nations. In 2004 also George W. Bush requested that a Palestinian state could coexist with Israel. In 2005, Palestinian militia forces began firing Qassam rockets at Israel. This ongoing war between Palestine and Israel has become a dark part in the history of the establishment of a Palestinian state.


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History of Balinese Barong Dance

General / 07 November 2019

Balinese barong dance is one of the many forms of art in Bali. Barong is a traditional dance, usually marked by a large four-legged animal mask and costumes worn by one or two people. This dance is a relic of pre-Hindu culture and tells of a cliche, namely the conflict between good and evil. Although Barong is usually described as a tiger or lion, there are also many other types of barongs such as Kekong Barong, Pigs and Landing. Keket himself is an ox known by the Balinese as the king of the jungle by the name of Banaspati Raja. Do you want to know what the whole history of Balinese Barong dance is like? The following collection of stories will present them briefly and clearly.


The origin of the Barong dance

It is believed that the word "Barong" comes from the word "Bahrwang", which can be interpreted freely as a bear. It is believed that this bear is a mystical power, a mythical animal that has high magical power and is worshiped as a protector. Some sources say that the history of the Balinese Barong dance is an adaptation of the history of the Chinese people, the Barongsai, while others believe that there is a very clear difference between the Barongsai and the Barong, where they think that the Barong dance is very much in accordance with the story and often interspersed with humor fresh, so the audience can stop being bored. This barong dance tells the most folklore about the struggle between good and evil. Throughout the history of Balinese barong dance, a good party is always portrayed by the figure of Barong, a four-legged animal in which two dancers are in control. The evil side is always represented the same, namely Rangda, a character like a scary woman who has two big fangs in her mouth.


There is a different view of the history of Balinese barong dance, with one view that barong dance is an art that has been around for a long time in Indonesia, the innate art of Austronesian society. This view also tells us that the story played in the Barong Dance is the story of Bhatara Pancering Jagat and his wife Ratu Ayu Pingit Dalem Dasar. Another view of barong originates from the Balinese scene, where barong dances are born from sacred stories rather than fairy tales. It is believed that the story of Barong and Rangda is related to history when Shiva was searching for Dewi Uma.


For the first time in its history, Balinese barong dance was used as a performance in the 19th century, when Raja Kelungkung, who used the name or nickname of Ida I Dewi Agung Sakti, asked about puppet shows with a total of about 36 people used by some dancers to play the role of an army of monkey kings and sometimes act as Ravana's army. The dancers then have to wear masks and clothes made from what are called Braksok fibers. Because of its popularity, the show later received the name Barong Kadingkling or Barong Blasblasan, which is considered to have made coconut trees in the village very, very fertile when visiting a village.


Types of Barong and Rangda in Balinese barong dances

In the application and development of Balinese Barong dance, there are various types of masks worn by the main dancers. The most commonly performed is Barong Ket, a dance that looks like a fusion of lions, tigers and cows. Barong's body has carved leather ornaments and mirrors that look sparkling. Barong Keket's body hairs are also made from a supplier, leaf fibers resembling pandanus and coconut fibers, and sometimes even crow feathers.


Barong Bangkal The second tangible animal, historically known as Barong Bangkal, is sometimes called Barong Celeng. As the name suggests, this barong has a shape similar to Bangkal or Bangkung, a big pig that is old. This type of barong is usually done on holy days by carrying them through the village.


The last species of the barong animal is the Barong Tiger, which, as the name suggests, is a tiger. This type of barong is famous for Balinese and Balinese. Usually they are led through villages and equipped with various drama devices such as Gamelan and others.


Another type of Barong is the Barong landing, which is no longer an animal and is more like a Jakarta ondel. The Barong Landing story tells that this barong is a representation of a Balinese King named Jaya Pangus, where he married a Chinese princess named Kang Cing Wei. The story in the Barong Landing production revolves around the question of how the marriage between the two men was not approved by the gods because Jaya Pangus was said to have hurt Adat, and when he could not have offspring, he went to Dewi Danu and made the goddess's property. a big fight between his wife and the goddess.


Besides Barong, Rangda is another party in the history of Barong, who is described as the queen of leaks. Rangda is described as often kidnapping and chasing small children and leading an army of evil magicians to drive out Barong. As in Barong, there are several types of Rangda, and the first is Rangda Nyinga, which is shaped like a lion and whose mouth is slightly protruding to illustrate that Rangda has a wild nature like a lion. The second type is Rangda Nyeleme, whose face resembles a human face to show that Rangda is authoritative. The final type of Rangda is Giant Rangda, which generally describes Rangda. This type of Rangda adds to the variation in the history of Balinese barong dance.



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History of the Origins of the Prophet Adam

General / 13 October 2019

History of the origin of the prophet Adam who was the first human to live on this earth is found in almost all the holy books of all religions ranging from the Genesis books of the Jewish people, the Old Testament, the Book of Mormon, the Book of Iqans, to the Qur'an. According to the mythology of the creation of Womack from celestial religion, Adam was indeed the first human being created by God. In the narration in the Book of Genesis, Adam is said to have been made by Yahmeh-Elohim (Lord Yahweh, the god of Israel) even though the word "adam" itself is able to refer to the first human or human creation in general. The Christian Church's view is a bit different in their perspective about Adam's actions that violated God's rules where the consequences of neglect have a bad effect on human life going forward. In the teachings of Judaism and Christianity, the sins borne by Adam and Eve are different while in Islamic teachings, the sins they bear are the same. In the teachings of Islam also Adam managed to get an apology from God while Christianity continued to believe that forgiveness took place at the sacrifice of Jesus Christ. According to the Baha'i Religion, Islam, and some branches of Christianity, Adam was the first prophet. Next, let us see more information about the history of the Prophet Adam who has compiled a history collection from various sources.


Prophet Adam in the Book of Genesis
In the use of the word "Adam" itself has a variety of different explanations. The word "Adam" can be used as a name, and was first used as "Adamu" and recorded in the Syrian king's list. Its use as a noun in Hebrew means "man". Actually, the root of this word is not from the word which means "man" but from "a-d-m" which means "red" or "handsome". As a masculine noun, "'adam" means "person" or "human" and if used in a collective context changes to "human race". In the Kabalistik language, Adam also comes from the Hebrew language "Adame" which means "I am the same" which in this context is the same as God, which has freedom.

The Story of the History of the Prophet Adam appears in the Book of the Beginning as the word "adam" which is used in a variety of meanings including: collective (human), individual (male), not specific to gender (male and female), and men. According to the Jewish encyclopedia, its use in Genesis 1 is as a general word and in Genesis 2 & 3 the use between common and individual words is mixed.

The history of the origin of the prophet Adam - the first man - in Genesis 1 tells of how God (God) created humans namely men and women where their name is Adam. Adam used in that verse does not refer only to the prophet Adam, but Adam as a human being as a whole. It was only in Genesis 2 that the history of the Prophet Adam was specifically referred to as the prophet Adam, who was created from dust and breathed by the wind of life, making him a living being. Only then did God place the prophet Adam in the Garden of Eden and give him the command that all fruit from the tree in that place could be eaten except from the tree of knowledge of good and evil. God then said that it was not good for a man to be alone so God gathered wild animals and among them also did not find a suitable helper, because God made Adam fall asleep and took one of his ribs to create a woman named Eve.

The story that explains the story of the Prophet Adam continues when in Genesis 3, it is told that Adam was banished from Eden. In the story of the removal of the prophet Adam from Eden, the woman is believed to have been lied to by the snake to eat the fruit of knowledge that clearly opposes God's rules. God then asked for a dialogue with Adam and Eve using a rhetorical question that made him admit his mistake. After God completed the judgment of all parties involved in the incident, He sentenced them. History of the Prophet Adam entered into a new section where Adam and Eve had to work hard for the first time in search of food. According to the Book of Genesis also, he has 3 children from Eve namely Cain, Abel, and Seth.

The Story of the Prophet Adam in Other Religions
In Jewish history, according to records from the Rabbi and the Dead Sea Scrolls, Adam was a perfect human being before being banished from Eden. According to Jewish folklore, Adam's first wife was not Eve but Lilith who left Adam because she refused to obey him. Lilith left and did not return to the Garden of Eden after having an intimate relationship with Samael the Angel.

In Islam, Adam was believed to be the first human being to have direct dialogue with God, making him the first Muslim and prophet. One of the earliest Islamic hadith commentators wrote that at the time of Adam's creation, Allah sent Gabriel and Michael to take land from Earth which the Earth refused because the Earth threatened to complain to Allah if the two angels destroyed it, so the Angels returned empty-handed. The next angel sent by Allah is Izrail who then took the land from various regions, explaining why there are many different forms of humans. According to the author, Adam was still not dead until 40 days after God breathed life on him, and when he began to live, Adam was appointed as the leader of the lower beings, where Adam then named them one by one after God taught him. That is the history of the origin of the prophet Adam - the first man on earth - who is also believed to be the first prophet in Islam, their prophets are people who have the same belief about their submission to God.


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The Origins of Javanese in History

General / 13 October 2019

The Javanese are the most populous (about 100 million people according to 2011 data) in Indonesia, starting as an Indonesian ethnic group, most of them including Sundanese in West Java. The ancestors of Javanese people are ancient people who came from Austronesian, a species that is thought to originate from around Taiwan and migrated through the Philippines before finally arriving on the island of Java in 1,500 and 1,000 BC. Javanese ethnic groups have many sub-ethnic groups such as the Mataram people, the Cirebonese, Osing, Tengger, Boya, Samin, Naga, Banyumasan, and many more. Today, the majority of Javanese people proclaim themselves as Muslims and the minority as Christians and Hindus. Apart from the religion they profess, Javanese civilization can never be separated from their interaction with the original animism called Kejawen which has been running for more than a millennium, and the influence of Javanese also can still be found in Javanese history, culture, tradition, and other fields of art. For more details, let's look at an explanation of the history of the origin of the following Javanese tribes that have compiled a History Collection from various sources.


Javanese in the Hindu-Buddhist and Islamic Period
When discussing the origin of the Javanese tribe is not much different from the origin of the Indonesian people as a whole, namely when the discovery of fossils from Homo erectus which is also known as "Java Man" by Eugene Dubois, a Dutch anatomist in 1891 at Trinil. The Homo erectus fossil that was discovered, was estimated to have an unusually old age of around 700,000 years, making it one of the ancient human species that could be found at that time. Not long ago, in Sangiran another fossil of the same species was found again in 1930 by Gustav Heinrich Ralph von Koenigswald who discovered a tool that seemed far more advanced than the tools of the previous era and the age of the instruments they had found was estimated to be 550,000 up to 143,000 years.

The main belief held by the Javanese tribe was animism and continued as it did until finally the Hindu and Buddhist preachers arrived in Indonesia, which began with trade contact with the Indian subcontinent. What made Javanese people interested in adopting these new religions was because they were able to unite with the unique Javanese local philosophy. The gathering place for Javanese culture is Kedu and Kewu which are on the slopes of Mount Merapi as the heart of the Medang i Bhumi Kingdom of Mataram. Some ancient dynasties such as Sanjaya and Syailendra also used the place as their power center. When Mpu Sendok ruled, the royal capital was moved near the Brantas River in the 10th century, this also led to a shift in the cultural and political center of the Javanese. It is believed that this displacement was caused by the volcanic eruption of Mount Merapi, but there are also those who assume that this displacement was caused by an attack from the Srivijaya Kingdom.

The development of the Javanese tribe began to become significant when Kertanegara ruled Singasari Kingdom at the end of the 13th century. The king, who loved to expand his territory, made several large expeditions, such as to Madura, Bali, Kalimantan, and most importantly, to the island of Sumatra. Finally, Singasari succeeded in controlling trade in the Malacca Strait following the defeat of the Malay kingdom. The dominance of the Singasari kingdom ceased in 1292 when a rebellion by Jayakatwang succeeded in ending Kertanegara's life, and Jayakatwang was killed again by Raden Wijaya who was the son of Kertanegara. Later, Raden Wijaya would establish Majapahit, one of the largest kingdoms in the archipelago at that time.

When Majapahit experienced many problems about who became the successor, several civil wars occurred and made Majapahit lose their own strength. When Majapahit began to collapse, the island of Java also began to change with the development of Islam, and the collapse of Majapahit became a momentum for the Sultanate of Demak to become the most powerful kingdom. The Sultanate of Demak later also played an important role in dispelling the coming colonial Portuguese forces. Demak attacked the Portuguese twice when the Portuguese defeated Malacca. Demak is also known for their courage to attack the Portuguese alliance and the Sunda Kingdom. The Sultanate of Demak was then continued by the Kingdom of Pajang and the Sultanate of Mataram, and this change also forced the center of power to move from initially on the coast of Demak to Pajang in Blora, and finally moved again to Mataram precisely in Kotagede which is near Yogyakarta now.

Early Javanese Migration
The Javanese themselves are thought to have a connection with the migration of Austronesians to Madagascar in the first century. Although the main culture of this migration is indeed closer to the Ma’anyans in Kalimantan, some parts of the Malagasy language itself are taken from Javanese. Hundreds of years later when the period of the Hindu kingdom arrived, many Javanese merchants settled in other places in the archipelago. At the end of the 15th century following the collapse of Majapahit and the development of Muslims on the north coast of Java, many Hindus from Java migrated to Bali and played a role in the advancement of Balinese culture.

Besides domestically, Javanese also appeared on the Malay peninsula for a long time. The relationship between Malacca and Java itself is an important thing that plays a major role in the development of Islam in Indonesia because many Islamic missionaries were sent from Malacca to several trading areas on the north coast of Java. These migrations expand the scope to be explored when historians investigate the traces of Javanese origin in history.


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The Story of the Prophet Muhammad SAW Received the First Revelation

General / 13 October 2019

If we talk about the story of the Prophet Muhammad receiving the first revelation, we cannot help but talk about the life of the Prophet Muhammad before becoming an apostle. Muhammad who was born with the full name Abu al-Qasim Muhammad ibn Abdullah ibn Abdul Muttalib ibn Hashim was someone who came from Mecca and united Arabia in a religious view called Islam. Non-Muslims consider Muhammad to be the founder of Islam, while Muslims themselves consider Muhammad to have restored the original monotheistic beliefs of Adam, Noah, Ibrahim, Musa, Isa, and other prophets.

Early Period Muhammad Received First Revelation
The incident experienced by the Prophet Muhammad in receiving his first revelation had never occurred to Muhammad who was born in 570 in Mecca. His father who died 6 months before Muhammad was born caused Muhammad to be born an orphan and was finally sent to live with Halimah bint Abi Dhuayb and her husband until Muhammad turned 2 years old. When he was 6 years old, Muhammad lost his mother, and became an orphan, where Muhammad finally lived with his uncle who came from Bani Hashim, namely Abdul Muttalib. Two years after living with his grandfather, his grandfather died and made Muhammad cared for by Abu Talib who became the successor to the Bani Hashim.


When he was a teenager, Muhammad often accompanied his uncle on a trip to Syria for trade and gain experience in commercial trade, the only career gate open to Muhammad as an orphan. History says that when Muhammad was around 9 to 12 years old, he met a Christian priest named Bahira who had predicted Muhammad's future as a messenger of God.

Unfortunately, not much is known about Muhammad's youth as a teenager. To be sure, at that time the Prophet Muhammad had not received his first revelation. The information contained about Muhammad as a teenager is also difficult to separate between history and legend. What is certain is that he eventually became a merchant and was involved in trade between the Indian oceans and the Mediterranean. Because of his honest character, Muhammad later accepted the nickname al-Amin which was interpreted as "trustworthy". Another nickname that Muhammad received in his youth was al-Sadiq, meaning "the right one" and was always sought as a mediator who never took sides. The reputation that revolved around Muhammad at that time attracted a 40-year-old widow named Khadijah who later proposed to Muhammad. The proposal was accepted and their marriage was a happy marriage.

Several years passed, and according to a narrative that the Collection of History got from a historian named Ibn Ishaq, Muhammad was involved in a famous story, about the placement of a black stone in one part of the wall of the Kaaba in 605. Black stone which is a sacred object this has been released to facilitate the renovation of the Kaaba. The leaders of Mecca at that time could not decide which clans could get the honor of putting the black stone back to its place, where they finally agreed to a proposal to ask whoever first passed through the gates of the Kaaba and that person was Muhammad who was 35 years old, 5 years before his coronation as an Apostle. Muhammad then asked for a piece of cloth, placed a black stone in its center, and asked the clan leaders to jointly hold the edge of the cloth and bring it to the right place so that Muhammad could lay the stone. This caused all the clan leaders to feel that they had the same honor.

Early History The Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) received his first revelation only when Muhammad began 40 years of age where he would spend much of his time alone praying and speculating about aspects of creation. He began to be concerned about social inequality, injustice, discrimination, war between tribes, and abuse of power. The moral degeneration of the people around him and his adventures to find a true religion became a driving force for Muhammad to begin to retreat to the Cave of Hira, three miles away from Mecca for contemplation and self-reflection. It was during this contemplation that it was believed that the angel Gabriel appeared before Muhammad around the year 610 and said "read it," but apparently Muhammad said that he did not know how to read. That's why Gabriel hugged him tightly twice and afterwards, told Muhammad to read the verse which would later become Muhammad's first revelation. A snippet from surah Al-Alaq verses 1-5 which has the following meaning:

"Read it! In the name of your Lord who created. Making humans from a clot of blood. Read it! And your god is the most noble. Teach with qalam. Things that humans don't know about. "

Confused by the experience he had just experienced, Muhammad returned home where he was later calmed by his wife Khadijah who then took him to his cousin Waraqah ibn Naufal. Waraqah is no stranger to Christian and Jewish scripts, wherein later Waraqah was certain about Muhammad's prophethood. Waraqah then stated that what Muhammad saw was Namus who was sent by Allah to Moses. Waraqah also predicted that Muhammad would be expelled from where he lives now, and swore if he had a long life, he would support Muhammad with all his might.

The story of the Prophet Muhammad receiving the first revelation had a pause some time before Muhammad finally met the angel Gabriel when Muhammad heard a voice from heaven and witnessed the same angel sitting between heaven and earth. After this first revelation, Muhammad continued to receive Revelations which were finally compiled into the Qur'an that we know today.


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History of Heroes' Day 10 November 1945

General / 13 October 2019

Heroes' Day 10 November 1945 is an annual commemoration to commemorate the Battle of Surabaya, where pro-independence Indonesian forces along with militias fought against British and Dutch forces as part of the Indonesian National Revolution. The battle of Surabaya, which is the historical background of Heroes' Day on November 10, 1945, reached its peak in that month, where a battle which was considered the heaviest battle of revolutions and then became a symbol of resistance for the Indonesian army. The battle which is considered a heroic action helped galvanize the Indonesian people and support from the international side for Indonesia. The Surabaya battle took place from 27 October to 20 November 1945 with an army of 20,000 infantry and 100,000 militia troops on the Indonesian side, while the British attacked with 30,000 troops plus tanks, planes and warships.



Background Regarding the Surabaya War
The commemoration of National Heroes' Day on November 10, 1945 will not begin if on August 17, 1945, Soekarno and Hatta did not declare Indonesian independence in Jakarta 2 days after the surrender of the Japanese empire to the Pacific war. News of this independence then spread throughout the islands, making Indonesian people feel a freedom where they later became pro-republicans. Within a few weeks after that, there was a vacuum of strength both from outside and inside Indonesia, creating an atmosphere of uncertainty and opportunity for some parties. Sure enough, this was used by a group of Dutch troops assisted by several Japanese troops to raise the Dutch flag outside the Yamato Hotel on September 19, 1945. This angered Indonesian militia soldiers, where they killed small Dutch and Japanese combined forces to tear up the blue part of the Dutch flag. Because of this chaos, one of the leaders of a Dutch group called Mr Ploegman was killed.

The Surabaya War, which would later write the history of National Heroes' Day on November 10, 1945, had ignited a small fire when a senior Japanese commander in Surabaya named Shibata Yaichiro decided to support the Republic and stated that he was ready to help Indonesia with arms supplies. Unfortunately on October 3 Shibata surrendered to the Dutch Navy captain, where he then ordered his troops to give their remaining weapons to the people of Indonesia. The Indonesian people should have given their weapons to the allies, but they refused to do so.

The battle of Surabaya, which underlies the history of National Heroes' Day on November 10, 1945, entered a new phase on October 26, 1945 when A.W.S. Mallaby reached an agreement with Mr Suryo, then governor of East Java, that the British army would not order the Indonesian army or militia to surrender their weapons.

The Battle of Surabaya
The beginning of the Battle of Surabaya which will be commemorated as the history of National Heroes' Day on November 10, 1945 was on October 27, 1945 where a British aircraft from Jakarta distributed leaflets over Surabaya which forced Indonesian soldiers and militias to surrender their weapons. This angered Indonesian army and militia leaders because it was considered a violation of the agreement made by Mallaby. On October 28, an attack on British troops was launched in Surabaya and killed around 200 soldiers. Because of this, the British flew Sukarno, Hatta and Amir Syarifuddin Harahap to negotiate a ceasefire. Even after the ceasefire was agreed by the two parties, the fighting resumed because of communication problems and the two parties who did not trust each other.


On October 30, 1945, A.W.S Mallaby was traveling to Surabaya with the aim of spreading the word about the ceasefire agreement to his army. When his car started approaching the British army post in the International building near Jembatan Merah, suddenly a group of Indonesian Republican militia surrounded him and shot Mallaby. R.C. Smith who saw this incident threw a grenade from his car in the direction he thought the shooter was hiding. Although he did not know whether the grenade had hit the target, the grenade explosion caused the rear seat of the car to be burned. Some sources even claim that this explosion killed Mallaby. Apart from all that, Mallaby's death became a very significant starting point because it was the event that recorded the Early History of National Heroes' Day on November 10, 1945.

Philip Christison, who was then serving as Lieutenant General, was furious when he heard that Mallaby had died in Surabaya. Because of this, the British sent additional troops led by Major General Robert Masergh with Sherman and Stuart's tanks, 2 cruisers and 3 destroyers as supporters. On November 10, British troops began methodically advancing throughout the city using sea and air bombardments as their protectors. Despite the extraordinary struggle of the Indonesian people, almost all of the city of Surabaya was successfully occupied and the fighting ended after three weeks on 29 November. The fighting took the lives of 6,300 to 15,000 Indonesian troops and an estimated 200,000 people fled the city while Britain had only 600 lives.

Because of the Surabaya battle, the international side saw that Indonesian militias and military groups should not be underestimated, because the most frightening soldiers were soldiers who were no longer afraid of death, just like Indonesian soldiers who fought. Considering this huge battle, in 2013 there was an Indonesian film titled Sang Kiai which showed the early part of the war that led to the history of National Heroes Day on November 10, 1945.

A few short articles about the History of Heroes' Day on November 10, 1945, may be additional useful knowledge for all of you. Thank you for taking the time to visit our page Collection of History.


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History of the Origin of the Stone Black Stone

General / 13 October 2019

The History of the Origin of the Stone of Hajar Aswad began when the prophet Ibrahim (Abraham) and his son were building the Kaaba, where at that time many components were not met. The Kaaba at that time did not yet have a roof or a door, so Ibrahim and Ismail tried hard to bring rocks from several existing mountains to complete the construction of the building. Hajar Aswad itself becomes an important thing when Muslims are making the Hajj journey, where tawaf starts and ends when the people who are performing the hajj stare at this stone. Over the years, countless people including the prophet Muhammad, friends and millions of Muslims kissed this stone while they were on the Hajj journey.



Reveals the History of Black Stone and Its Relations with the Kaaba
The origin of the Black Stone can not be separated from the history of the Kaaba itself. According to al-Baqarah verse 127, the construction of the Ka'bah, according to the Qur'an, was carried out by Ibrahim and his son, Ismail. It is said that Allah had shown Ibrahim where they had to do construction, which was a place very close to the Zamzam well, finally Ibrahim and Ismail began to work on the construction of the Kaaba in about 2130 BC. When this construction was underway, Ibrahim realized that so many components of the Kaaba were not able to be made due to lack of materials, so he and Ishmael finally went down several mountains to carry the rocks with the aim of completing the construction of the Kaaba.

Even after the entire Kaaba was completed, Ibrahim still felt that an important part was missing. There is one source that says that Ibrahim ordered Ishmael to find another stone that could give a "signal" to humanity. Hearing this, Ishmael went from one hill to another just to find a stone that could be a flare and give a signal to all mankind, and at this moment, the angel Gabriel was sent by God to bring a stone that supposedly said to be white and give it to Ismail. Finding the beautiful white stone, Ismail went home and how happy Ibrahim saw the stone he was carrying. Ismail then answered Ibrahim's question about the location of this stone with the answer "I received this from someone who would not burden my grandchildren or your grandchildren (Jibril)" then Ibrahim kissed the stone, and the movement was then followed by Ismail.

History The origin of the stone Black Stone continued again after the stone was placed by Ibrahim in the eastern corner of the Kaaba. Right after doing that, Ibrahim got a revelation that Allah ordered him to go and proclaim that humanity must make a pilgrimage so that Arabia could be visited by people from far away. Some researchers believe that the Kaaba was actually built in 2130 BC. This calendar is considered consistent with Muslim beliefs that the Ka'bah is the first and oldest mosque in history. According to Samaritan literature, in a book called Secrets of Moses it is written that Ishmael and his eldest son, Nebaioth was the one who built the Kaaba and also the city of Mecca. This book is believed to have been written in the 10th century, while there are other opinions that consider this book was written in the second half of the 3rd century BC.


Hajar Aswad himself actually has become something that is respected even before the preaching of Islam by Muhammad. When the era of Muhammad arrived, this stone was also associated with the Kaaba. Karen Armstrong in her book entitled Islam: A Short History, wrote that the Kaaba was dedicated to Hubal, one of the gods in the Nabataean faith, and in it there were 365 idols, each of which represented one day in a year. According to Ibn Ishaq who was a biographer of Muhammad in the early era, the Ka'bah itself was considered a goddess, three generations before Islam emerged. Semitic Middle Eastern culture also has a tradition of using foreign stones as markers of worship, a phenomenon written in both the Jewish and Qur'anic Gospels.

In the era of the Prophet Muhammad SAW, the history of the Hajar Aswad stone became important when several clans in Mecca fought to determine who was fit to put the Hajar Aswad back in the Kaaba after renovations due to a large fire. After the war had almost begun, the elders of the clan began to approve the proposal that they should ask the next person who passed through the gates of the Kaaba, and incidentally that person was Muhammad who was still 35 years old. After hearing the subject matter, Muhammad asked the clan leaders to bring him a cloth, which he then used to place the Black Stone in the center of the cloth. After being laid down, Muhammad asked each clan leader to grab the edge of the cloth, lift it up, and bring it to the right position to place the Black Stone. After arriving at his place, Muhammad himself took and put the Black Stone in its proper position, and this succeeded in thwarting the war that might have taken place between the Meccan clans.

The history of the Black Stone continues, but before that he had experienced some significant damage. This stone is also said to have been broken by a stone that was fired by a slingshot during the invasion of Mecca by Umayyad. The broken stone fragments were then put back together by Abdullah Ibn Zubayr using silver. In 930, the stone was stolen by the Qarmati to what is now Bahrain. Now, this stone is an important part in the religious ceremonies of Muslims, namely when they perform the pilgrimage.

A few short articles about the origin of the stone hajar aswad, may be new knowledge for all of you. Thank you for visiting our page Collection of History.


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History of the Establishment of a Palestinian State

General / 13 October 2019

The Palestinian state which declared its independence on 15 November 1988 has an interesting story in it. The first to declare the country's independence was the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) in Algiers which at that time acted as a government-in-exile, as a political group claimed to be legitimate government but were unable to use their power and instead lived in other countries. The areas claimed as part of the Palestinian state are the West Bank and Gaza Strip, while Jerusalem is determined as the capital. Even so, since 1967 almost all of the areas claimed by Palestine are now occupied by Israeli soldiers as a result of the Six Days war that occurred on June 5 to 10 of that year.



History of Palestine Before the Modern Era
The history of the establishment of a Palestinian state dates back to the Canaanite period. This is confirmed by a fossil of humans more than 1.5 million years ago in the Pleistocene era. The discovery of the fossil was found at Ubeidiya, which is 3 km south of the Sea of Galilee. This fossil is thought to be the first evidence of early migration from Homo erectus out of Africa. In 1925 in a cave called Goa Zuttiyeh also found the remains of living things which were later given the name "Palestinian Man". In the south of Nazareth, at a paleoanthropological site, 11 Homo sapien skulls were found that had been fossilized on a rock. The fossil, which after being examined in modern human anatomy, turned out to be around 90,000 to 100,000 years old, and many of the remaining bones were colored using the red ocher that is commonly used in the burial process.

After the Canaanite period passed and passed through two phases of the bronze period, the history of the establishment of the Palestinian state continued with the period of the New Egyptian Kingdom around 1550 to 1400 BC where the cities of Canaan were now part of the kingdom of New Egypt which made a massive expansion into the area The Levants under Ahmose I and Thutmose I. All political, commercial and military affairs in the latter part of the era were recorded by several ambassadors and Canaanian proxy leaders for Egypt in 379 using tablets known as the Amarna Letters. During the first reign of the Seti I pharaoh, he carried out a mission to re-coordinate Canaan which is now in Egyptian rule to the Shean Belt area and installed several puppet governments to govern the area. In 1178 BC, Ramesses III raised the flag of war against the Sea People, which was named the Djahy War (Canaan), where this war was the beginning of the loss of power of the New Kingdom of Egypt at the Levant, and at the same time the collapse of the Bronze era.


The history of the establishment of a Palestinian state continues back to the Hellenic era with its subjugation in 330 BC by Alexander the Great after previously surviving through the independent period of Israelite, Philistine and Canaanite, the period under the rule of the Neo-Syrian and Neo-Babylonian kingdoms, and the Persian empire (Achaemenid). In 323 to 301 BC, Palestinian land was repeatedly ruled by different people due to the Diadochi war. There are also leaders written in the history of the establishment of a Palestinian state at that time including Laomedon, Ptolemy I Soter, and Antigonus I Monophthalmus. In 321 BC, Ptolemy I Soter killed the son of Antigonus I in the Gaza War, Demetrius I. The large number of wars that occurred in this era caused the landscape to change in extreme times with a very rapid transfer of power. Another thing that has happened is that many fortified cities have been built with the reason to dispel enemy forces.

Palestinian State in the Modern Era
The era of the Roman kingdom which recorded another part in the history of the establishment of a Palestinian state lasted for 3 periods namely Roman Iudea in 63 BC which was then continued by the Roman Syrian Roman period in 132 BC, and ended around the 630s due to the defeat of Roman troops in several major wars. The defeat of the Roman army also opened the gate for the entry of the Muslim Caliphate, led by Rashidun and Umayyad until 968 before the Fatimid Caliphate attacked. The Fatimid Caliphate was only able to survive until 1054 and began to collapse due to attacks from the crusaders during the Crusades.

The history of the establishment of a modern Palestinian state began in 1516 when Ottoman Turks occupied Palestine and Istanbul was appointed as its local government. Palestinian rule was threatened when Napoleon began the war in March 7 to July 1799. This attack failed and ended when Napoleon was killed by his younger brother who collaborated with the Ottomans. On May 10, 1832, the Ottoman Syrian territory was occupied by Egyptian expansionists under the leadership of Muhammad Ali in the Egyptian-Ottoman war in 1831, however, the Ottomans fought back and were only defeated when they joined the German Empire in World War I.

Starting from around the 2000s, Palestinians whose territory began to be claimed by Israel began to rebel and their first attack was known as Al-Aqsa Intifada. In 2002, a resolution to end the Israeli-Palestinian conflict was proposed by the United States, the European Union, Russia and the United Nations. In 2004 also George W. Bush requested that a Palestinian state could coexist with Israel. In 2005, Palestinian militia forces began firing Qassam rockets at Israel. This ongoing war between Palestine and Israel has become a dark part in the history of the establishment of a Palestinian state.


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History of the Church's Existence in Indonesia

General / 13 October 2019

The church in Indonesia is divided into two, namely the Catholic church and the Christian church. The Christian Church in Indonesia, despite the fact that Christianity itself is a minority religion, is estimated to begin in the 12th century, where Egyptian Christians noted that there were several Christian churches founded in Barus, the west coast area of North Sumatra which was a frequent trading post visited by Indian merchants and because of that it is associated with Saint Thomas Christian in India. However, there is no evidence that Christianity ever arrived before the arrival of Portuguese merchants in the 16th century. For the Catholic church, also began to emerge when at the beginning of the 14th century, through the Roman Catholic mission to reach Indonesia led by Mattiussi who visited Sumatra, Java, and Banjarmasin.



Early Church Development in Indonesia
The history of the emergence of the church in Indonesia from the Christian side began when the Portuguese arrived at the Malacca Sultanate which is now Malaysia in 1509 in search of the wealth they had. Initially, their relationship went well until the subjugation of Goa and some conflicts between Muslims and Christians which caused Muslims in Malacca to think that the arrival of Portuguese Christians would only cause problems for them. What made this event worse was the submission of Malacca, which was considered to be a turning point that made all Muslims of Malacca create a sentiment against Portuguese Christians. Resistance also emerged from the Muslims in Aceh, and also the Ottoman empire. Although the Portuguese succeeded in building several churches, their arrival in Malacca was seen as more negative than their initial goal of promoting the religion.

On the Catholic side, Mattiussi who is an Italian monk claimed that he was commissioned by the Pope to sail from Padua to Sumatra before finally arriving in Java and Banjarmasin. This mission began in 1318, and ended with his return by land across China, Vietnam and Europe in 1330. In the notes he made, also written a Javanese kingdom that has a Hindu-Buddhist style, as in Majapahit. The mission was considered as a pioneering mission, because because of this mission the Catholic church could have information about the condition of Asia, where at that time there was not at all the influence of Catholicism on the continent.

When there was an occupation of Malacca in 1511 by the Portuguese, Catholic missionaries also arrived in the area immediately. One of the most famous and important developments in the history of the church in Indonesia is Francis Xavier. When the Portuguese were driven out of Ternate in 1574, many Catholics in the area were killed or forcibly converted to Islam. In 1605, the remaining Catholics were forced again to adopt a new teaching, namely Protestantism. Only in 1808 under the leadership of Daendels, Catholics were given the freedom to adhere to their own religion.


Re-tracing the history of the Christian church is when in 1972, a Balinese native named I Wayan Mastra converted to Christianity while he was attending a Christian school on the island of Java. He later became chairman of the GKPB and began the Balinization process, where he tried to make Christian churches in Bali more open to Balinese culture, following the Bali Catholic church which had already done such a thing.

The history of the church in Indonesia, especially the Catholic church, again underwent a change when in 1896, a Dutch priest named Frans van Lith came to Muntilan, Central Java. Initially, whatever he tried did not end well, but finally in 1904 there were 4 city leaders from Kalibawang who came to his house and asked for teachings about the religion he brought. On December 15 of the same year, 178 Javanese people were finally baptized in the Semagun area. In addition, Van Lith also established a school for teachers in Muntilan where the school was named Normaalschool in 1900 and changed to Kweekschool in 1904. In 1911, Van Lith re-established the Secondary Seminary which succeeded in printing important people in Indonesian Catholic history namely FX Satiman SJ, Albertus Soegijapranata SJ, and Adrianus Djajasepoetra SJ.

The Christian Church itself, although its religion remains a minority in various regions, does not stop spreading its teachings. So in the sixties many communists and Chinese people turned to Christianity because of anti-communist and anti-Confucian jargon. At this time many Christian schools began to be made that teach about the religion. Until now, the Christian Church is still trying to develop more rapidly than its previous development.

The first bishop in the Indonesian Catholic church was Albertus Soegijapranata SJ who was appointed in 1940. Eight years later on December 20, two adherents named Sandjaja and Hermanus Bouwens were killed in a village called Kembaran, where eventually Sandjaja was considered a martyr of the Catholic church in Indonesia . Some well-known Indonesian heroes are also Catholics such as Agustinus Adisoetjipto, Ignatius Slamet Riyadi, and Yos Soedarso. Maybe these facts also make the history of the church in Indonesia, especially the Catholic church, growing very rapidly. Even so, in the 1990s and early 2000 there was a riot targeting Catholics and Christians. Fortunately at that time, Abdurrahman Wahid who was the leader of Nahdatul Ulama was able to suppress the antipathy that existed between parties of different religions.


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