When talking about the history of the youth oath day October 28, 1928, can not be separated from the struggle of the Indonesian people who were then colonized by the Dutch forces. Youth oath is one of the important events in National History. This oath is considered as an embodiment of the spirit of the formation of a one Indonesia. This oath itself was a decision of the Second Youth Congress on October 27 and 28, 1928 in Jakarta, which was then still called Batavia. The oath contains hope for the emergence of the homeland, language and nation of Indonesia.
Youth Oath Day Background
The historic event of the Youth Oath Day is one of a series of events where a sense and spirit of unity and unity began to emerge, as well as nationalism and awareness to establish a united Indonesia, where this feeling never arose before when the Netherlands and Japan occupied Indonesia. There are two important events that marked the period, namely the establishment of Boedi Oetomo on May 20, 1908 and the Youth Pledge pledge on October 28, 1928. This period was also referred to as the impact of post-Multatuli ethical politics.
The feeling that began to emerge in the hearts of every Indonesian society is expected to arise due to various factors, such as urbanization, communism, Islam, education, entertainment such as film, theater, and kroncong music, to racist treatment of the Dutch people. This encourages intellectual individuals like Kartini, Tirto, and Semaun to speak out and echo the idea of unity which will later become the topic of discussion and form a youth oath event. These people began to voice freedom and nationalism, which in turn encouraged the Dutch to ban freedom of speech and freedom of association. Because of this prohibition, only a few of them dare speak out against Dutch colonialism, and the resistance can be controlled.
At the beginning of the 20th century, the number of education in Indonesia was very small, and at this time ethical politics took an important role in increasing the number of education in Indonesia. Although not nationally providing an opportunity for education, the decision provided learning opportunities for elite Indonesian children with the initial intention being that the children work for the living colonial bureaucracy. Unfortunately, this western-style education system also carries westernized political ideas about democracy and freedom.
On May 20, 1908, Boedi Oetomo as a youth organization was founded by Dr. Soetomo and became the first movement to open the road to youth oath commemoration. The main leader of this organization was Wahidin Soedirohoesodo who eventually resigned because based on Boedi Oetomo's first meeting in Yogyakarta in October 1908, it was the youth who had to intervene. In 1912, Indische Partij was founded by Douwes Dekker and friends. Indische Partij was the first political organization to introduce the concept of Indonesian nationalism, and later inspired other organizations such as the Nationaal Indische Partij and Indo Europeesch Verbond in 1919. In the same year as Indische Partij, Sarekat Islam was founded by Haji Samanhudi in Surakarta. Sarekat Islam is more inclined towards Islam and kejawen so that their unifying element is only the frill of Islam. Unfortunately, instead of being anti-Dutch, Sarekat Islam is considered more anti-Chinese. On November 18 of the same year, Muhammadiyah was founded by KH Ahmad Dahlan in Yogyakarta.
July 20, 1913, Ais ik eens Nedernader was written by Suwardi Suryaningrat as a form of protest to the Dutch colonial government who intended to hold a party to commemorate 100 years of their independence. This protest made Tjipto Mangunkusumo and Suwardi be tried and exiled to the Banda Islands, but they were given another choice to go to the Netherlands where Suwardi finally pursued education in the field and Tjipto fell ill and had to be returned to Indonesia.
In 1918, the Volksraad gathered for the first time after it was founded in 1916. There were 39 members and 15 of them were native to Indonesia. This year, the Dutch government agreed that in the future, Indonesia would be given a policy to have its own government, but after that there was no news to explain further.
It was only in the 1920s that the word "Indonesia" was used as a word symbolizing the unity of the people. The word was formed by a British naturalist in order to carry out ethnic classification and geographical area. He said again, before Youth Alliances had talked about the country of Bali, the country of Java, the country of Sumatra, etc., but now they call it Indonesia. In 1927, Sukarno formed the Indonesian National Party (PNI) in Bandung, and was the first party with all its members of Indonesia focused on discussing liberation from the Dutch government and achieving independence. On October 28, the Youth Pledge was finally created in which the All Indonesian Youth Congress decided on a national goal.
The first association of the Indonesian Youth Congress was held in Batavia, the capital of the Dutch East Indies in 1926, which unfortunately did not produce any decisions but sparked the idea of a united Indonesia. Only in October 1928 did the second meeting take place in three different places. The first session hopes that the youth congress will inspire a sense of unity, while the second session discusses the existing educational issues. The third session and the last session were held at Jalan Kramat Raya number 126, where participants for the first time heard the national song Indonesia Raya created by Rudolf Supratman and closed with the reading of the youth oath. This incident later became the history of youth oath day, October 28, 1928.