History of the Establishment of the City of Yogyakarta

General / 09 October 2019

Hello loyal friends Collection of History, this time we will try to review information regarding the city of Yogyakarta. How did Yogyakarta form? How is the history? Following complete information. The history of the founding of the city of Yogyakarta cannot be separated from the story of the Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat Sultanate which is an independent country. The sultanate was established in 1755 and was carried out according to a political contract with the Dutch.

The Beginning of the Sultanate in the Yogyakarta Region
On February 13, 1755 coincided with the signing of the Giyanti Agreement between Governor-General Jacob Mossel, a VOC with Prince Mangkubumi, which divided the Kingdom of Mataram into two parts. Half of the kingdom of Mataram was given to Prince Mangkubumi who was later appointed as Sultan and changed his name to Sultan Hamengkubuwana I. Meanwhile, the remaining half of the area was renamed Surakarta Sunanate and remained controlled by Sunan Paku Buwono III.

Mangkubumi's promotion to Sultan Hamengkubuwana made him act quickly by establishing a new royal capital and palace between the Winongo River and the Code River, precisely in the Paberingan Forest. This capital became the beginning of the history of the founding of the city of Yogyakarta, because it was called Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat. The main landscape for the capital was finally completed on 7 October 1756. For the successors to the prince of Mangkubumi, they still chose to use his title, Hamengku Buwono. To avoid confusion about who is enthroned and its predecessor, the phrase used is "who reigns to ... in Yogya". There are also several special titles namely Sultan Sepuh (old sultan) for Hamengkubowono II.

Because it is a fraction of the kingdom of Mataram, the Yogyakarta Sultanate region was originally divided into three layers, the capital region named Nagari Ngayogyakarta, the main region named Nagara Agung, and the outer region named Manca Nagara. When combined, the Nagari Ngayogyakarta and Nagara Agung regions have an area of around 310 square km, while the Manca Nagara area is around 198.5 square km. It has not yet been calculated that the additional area of Danurejo I is around 9.36 square km in Banyumas.

Ngayogyakarta Sultanate Region
The area included in the scope of Nagari Ngayogyakarta is the old city of Yogyakarta between the Code River and Winongo, as well as the surrounding area with the State Pathok Mosque as the boundary. While Nagara Agung covers the Siti Ageng Miaya Kusuma area, the area between Pajang and Demak, the Siti Bumijo area which is the Bagelen region between the Progo and Bagawanta Rivers, the Siti Panekar area (east Pajang to Gunungkidul), and Siti Gadhing Mataram which is an area between Mount Gunung Merapi and Indian Ocean. The Manca Nagara area itself includes Madiun kota, Magetan, Caruban, half of Pacitan, Kertosono, Kalangbret, Ngrowo (now Tulung Agung), Mojokerto, Ngawen, Selo, Kuwu-Wirosari, a little part of Grobogan.

This area is increasingly diminishing due to seizures carried out by Daendels and Raffles. Not to mention the seizure of the entire area of Manca Nagara by the Dutch East Indies government after the Diponegoro War in 1830. On September 27 of the same year, the Klaten agreement was also signed in which the agreement confirmed that the Yogyakarta Sultanate region only covered Mataram and Gunungkidul with a total area of 2,902.54 km square.

Residents of Ngayogyakarta Sultanate
The history of the founding of the city of Yogyakarta is also inseparable from the people who lived in it since the sultanate. When the Palihan Nagari agreement was made, the population of the Sultanate was expected to be around 522,300 inhabitants which increased to 1,477,022 people in 1930. For the social strata themselves at that time were divided into three, namely the nobility or the airport, employees or servants of Dalem, and the people or servants Tradition. The Sultan himself is a member of the upper strata of the aristocratic strata, where members of the stratum are also filled by people who have a kinship with the sultan who is or has ruled.

Government in Ngayogyakarta Sultanate
Another important thing in the history of the founding of the city of Yogyakarta is the system of government at that time. Until 1972, de facto the Yogyakarta Sultanate was an independent country, and the VOC was only an equal partner. The VOC then placed a Resident in Yogyakarta, where the task of this Resident was to supervise matters that occurred in the empire. Initially, the strata of the Resident were under the sultan, but suddenly Daendels raised their position as Minister, and represented the presence of the Governor-General.

When Raffles appeared, there was another change in the imperial government system where the Sultan no longer had permission to hold foreign relations. This is because their sovereignty is now held by the British government. Pepatih Dalem and the Royal Officers were also appointed and dismissed according to the needs of the British government, where whatever they do must be considered by the British Resident. Because of this, the Sultan began to be freed from a government led by Pepatih Dalem, where Pepatih Dalem himself was only a puppet of the Resident.

The imperial government underwent a major change when Hamengkubowono IX ascended the throne in 1940, especially during the Japanese occupation. Slowly, the Sultan returned to restoring the government system that was tarnished by the Dutch bureaucracy. Government bodies were formed to accommodate government affairs named Paniradya, and were headed by Paniradyapati who were directly under the Sultan's orders. Pepatih Dalem was completely eliminated as the last retirement of Pepatih Dalem, namely KPHH Danurejo VIII, on July 15, 1945. Since then, the Sultan began to take back his role as the total ruler of the Ngayogyakarta Sultanate.

The emergence of the City of Yogyakarta
Sultan Hamengku Buwono IX and Sri Paduka Paku Alam VIII sent a wire (telegram) to the President of the Republic of Indonesia during the proclamation of independence. The wire contains a statement that the Paku Alaman and the Sultanate of Yogyakarta will join and form the Yogyakarta Special Region which is royal in nature. Simultaneously with this statement, the sultanate status of the Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat Sultanate ended, and ended the history of the founding of the city of Yogyakarta.

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